Saponification overview of oil SAP values

Our saponification values come primarily from our suppliers and product documentation. In some cases, we have relied on outside sources. Some GSP values will differ from those reported in other sources because GSP values may fall within a range of values that are acceptable for an oil/butter/lipid. The actual value will change depending on the origin of the lipid and what the weather conditions were for that particular plant material and processing techniques. In most cases, we used an average of the range so that your soap does not become leach heavy in case the actual GSP value was at the lower end of the range.

These numbers are actual SAP values expressed as the number of mg of KOH required to saponify 1 g of oil/fat. When reading a certificate of analysis of an oil/fat, the SAP Value is indicated in this way.

Most soap makers prefer to convert these numbers when making soap to easily calculate their lye. You see these converted values as decimal values. They are derived from the actual GSP value and are not true GSP values.

Dividing the SAP value by 1000 gives us a ratio of KOH to oil in the same units (mg), and therefore becomes the ratio of KOH needed for each unit as long as you use the same units to measure your KOH and oils. Example: An oil with an average SAP value of 190 needs 190/1000 = 0.190 g KOH per g of oil, or 0.190 ounces of KOH per ounce of oil, or 0.190 pounds of KOH per pound of oil.

Dividing the SAP value by 1402.50 or multiplying the KOH ratio by 40/56.1 (the ratio of the molecular weights of NaOH/KOH), gives us the amount of NaOH needed for each unit, as long as you use the same units for NaOH and oils. Example: An oil with an average SAP value of 190 requires 190/1402.50 = 0.135 g of NaOH per 1 g of oil, 0.135 ounces of NaOH per ounce of oil or 0.135 pounds of NaOH per pound of oil.

To convert actual SAP values into converted values ready to work with in any unit:

Solid soap (NaOH): divide the average SAP value by 1402.50
Liquid soap (KOH): divide the average SAP value by 1000

Soap recipe calculation

With these known values, a calculation can now be made. If the saponification number has a staggered value then the average is used in the calculation. Practice will show if this number needs to be adjusted, if the soap is too fatty the average saponification value must be adjusted up and if the soap contains too little fat the average value will have to be lowered.

Lye calculation example hard soap:

  • Olive oil 184-196, average 190, quantity 100 grams
  • Coconut oil 250-264, average 257, quantity 100 grams
  • Leaching strength 27% NaOH
  • Overfat 1%

Formula lye: (saponification / 1422.9803) x ((grams of oil / 100) x (100 – overfatting)) = grams of NaOH

Lye calculation:

  • Olive oil: (190 / 1422.9803) x ((100 / 100) x (100 – 1)) = 13.219 grams of NaOH
  • Coconut oil: (257 / 1422.9803) x ((100 / 100) x (100 – 1)) = 17.882 grams of NaOH
  • Total: 31.173 grams of NaOH

Now that the amount of lye is known, the amount of water can be calculated.
Formula water: (grams of NaOH / lye strength) x 100 – grams of Naoh = grams of water

Lye calculation:
Olive oil: (13.219 / 27) x 100 – 13.219 = 35.741 grams of water

Coconut oil: (17.882 / 27) x 100 – 17.882 = 48.346 grams of water

Total: 84.087 grams of water

To make hard soap from 100 grams of olive oil and 100 grams of coconut oil requires 31.173 grams of NaOH dissolved in 84.087 grams of water. By using two types of oils, the calculated quantities must be added together and soap making can be started. For liquid soap, KOH is used, the lye strength is around 20%. The hardness of the water neutralizes a small amount of lye because of this the overfatting of the soap will increase. Distilled water does not affect leach strength.

LipidsSAPNAOH (gr.)KOH (gr.)INCI name
Strawberry seed oil170-2100,1350,19Fragaria ananassa (Strawberry) Seed Oil
Apricot kernel butter130 – 1450,0980,138Prunus armeniacae (Apricots)
Apricot kernel oil185 – 1950,1350,19Prunus Armeniaca (Apricot) Pit Oil
Apricot kernel oil, Organic185 – 1950,1350,19Prunus Armeniaca (Apricot) Oil
Acai oil, organic188 – 2030,140,196Euterpe Oleracea (Acai) oil
Aloe Vera Butter220-2600.1710,24Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and Aloe barbadensis leaf extract
Almond butter, sweet90 – 1400,0820,115Prunus amygdalus dulcis (sweet almond) oil (and) hydrogenated vegetable oil
Almond oil, sweet190-2000.1390.195Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (sweet almond) oil
Amla Oil150-3500.1780.25Emblica officinalis (Amla) Fruit Extract and Sesamum Indicum (Sesame)
Argan Oil, Virgin Organic180-2000,1350,19Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil
Avocado Butter177-1980,1340,188Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil
Avocado oil187-1970,1370,192Persea Gratissim a (Avocado) Oil
Avocado oil, organic185-2000,1380,193Persea gratissima (Avocado) Oil
Avocado oil, refined185-2300,1480,208Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil
Avocado Oil, Virgin177-1980,1340,188Persea gratissima (Avocado) Oil
Babassu nut oil245-2560,1790,251Orbignya oleifera (babassu) seed oil
Frying fat, Vegetable1900,1350,19 
Baobab oil180-2000.1350,19Digitata Adansonia (baobab) seed oil
Baobab oil, refined140-2050.1230.173Digitata Adansonia (baobab) seed oil
Borage Oil175-1960,1330,186Borago officinalis (borage) Seed Oil
Borage oil, Organic, Refined, 20% GLA185-1950,1350,19Borago officinalis (borage) Seed Oil
Borage oil, Organic, Virgin, 20% GLA185 – 1950,1350,19Borago Officinalis (Branage) Seed Oil
Borage oil, refined, 20% GLA185 – 1950,1350,19Borago Officinalis (Branage) Seed Oil
Borage oil, refined, 22% GLA185 – 1950,1350,19Borago Officinalis (borage) Seed Oil
Borage oil, Virgin, 20% GLA185 – 1950,1350,19Borago Officinalis (Borage) seed oil
Buriti oil185 – 2400,1520,213Mauritia Flexuosa (Buriti) Fruit Oil
Camelina Oil185-1970,1360,191Camelina sativa (Camelina) seed oil
Candelilla Wax Pellets43-650,0390,054Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax
Caprylic Caprine Triglyceride MCT325-3450,2390,335Caprylic/Caprine Triglyceride
Caprylic caprine triglycerides MCT Oil325-3450,2390,335Caprylic/capric acid triglycerides
Caprylic caprine triglycerides MCT Oil, Organic310-3600,2390,335Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil
Carnauba Wax Flakes78 – 950,0620,087Copernicia Cerifera (Carnauba) Wax
Castor Oil, Black176-1860,1290,181Ricinus communis (Castor) Seed Oil
Chia Seed Oil, Virgin, Organic180-2000,1350,19Chia (Chia) Seed Oil (en) tocopherol
Cocoa Butter, Deodorized188-1980,1380,193Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter
Cocoa Butter, Pure Prime Pressed188 – 2000.1380.194Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter
Cocoa Butter, Ultra Refined188-2000,1380,194Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter
Cocoa Oil173-1880,1290,181Theobroma cacao (Cocoa)
Cupuacu Butter Ultra Refined210-2350,1590,223Theobroma grandiflorum (Cupuacu) Butter
Cupuacu Butter, Refined210-2350,1590,223Theobroma grandiflorum (Cupuacu) seed butter
Deer Tallow1950,1390,195 
Grape seed oil180-2000,1350,19Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil, tocopherol
Grape seed oil, organic185-2000,1380,193Vitis vinifera (Grape) Seed oil
Grape seed oil, Chardonnay176-1940,1320,185Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil
grape seed oil, Riesling185-2000,1380,193Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil
Sea Buckthorn Berry Total CO2 Extract180 – 1950,1340,188Hippophae Rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn) Fruit Extract
Emu Oil, Clear AEA Certified185-2000,1380,193Emu Oil
Evening Primrose Oil180-1950,1340,188Middle Evening Primrose (Evening Primrose) Oil
Evening Primrose Oil Refined 9% GLA180-1950,1340,188Middle Evening Primrose (Evening Primrose) Oil
Pomegranate Seed Oil, Organic, Virgin182-1920,1330,187Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) Seed Oil
Pomegranate Seed Oil, Organic1850,1320,185Punica granatum Linn (Pomegranate) Oil
Pomegranate Seed Oil, Virgin182-1920,1330,187Punica granatum (pomegranate) Seed Oil
Pomegranate seed oil1850,1320,185Punica granatum Linn (Pomegranate) Oil
oat oil185-2000,1380,193Avena sativa (oat) Kernel
Hazelnut oil187-1950,1360,191hazel (Hazel) Seed Oil
Hazelnut oil Chilean Gevuina184-1950,1350,19Gevuina Avellana (hazelnut) Oil
Hemp Seed Butter175-2000,1340,188Cannabis sativa Seed Oil (en) hydrogenated vegetable oil
Hemp Seed Oil190-1950,1380,193Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil
Hemp Seed Oil , Organic190-1950,1380,193Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil
Hemp Seed Oil Refined188-1940,1360,191Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil
Hemp Seed Oil, Organic Virgin 188-1940,1360,191Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) seed oil
hemp seed oil, Virgin188-1940,1360,191Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil
Hibiscus Oil, Organic188-2000,1380,194Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hibiscus) Seed Oil
High Linoleic Safflower Oil180 – 1950,1340,188Ca rthamus tinctorus (Safflower) Oil
Illipe Butter188 – 2000.1380.194Shorea stenoptera (Illipe) Seed Butter
Jojoba Oil, organic, clear90 – 950,0660,093Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba)
Jojoba Oil, Golden, Organic86 – 960.0650.091Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil
Jojoba Oil, clear90 – 930,0660,092Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil
Jojoba Oil, Natural85 – 980.0660.092Simmondsia Chinensis ( Jojoba) Seed Oil
Gourd Oil170 – 1800,1250,175Lagenaria Sphaerica (Gourd) Seed Oi l
Cotton Seed Oil1920,1370,192 
Cherry kernel oil180 – 2000,1350,19Prunus Avium (Cherry) Pit Oil
Coffee Bean Butter175 – 2000,1340,188Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil, Coffea Arabica (Coffee) Seed Oil
Coconut oil fractionated325-3450,2390,335Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil
Coconut Oil, Organic Virgin 255-2650,1850,26Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) oil
coconut oil,Organic, Virgin250-2650,1840,258Cocos nucifera (Coconut)
Coconut oil,Organic250-2650,1840,258Cocos nucifera (Coconut)
coconut oil,RBD250-2640,1830,257Cocos nucifera (Coconut)
coconut oil,Virgin, Organic248-2680,1840,258Cocos Nucifera (Virgin Coconut) Oil
Kokum butter187-1930.1350,19Garcinia indica (Kokum) seed butter
Cucumber seed oil180-1900,1320,185Cucumis sativus (cucumber) Oil
Rapeseed oil1730,1230,173 
Rapeseed oil1750,1250,175 
Kukui nut oil185-1950.1350,19Aleurites moluccana (Kukui) nut oil
lanolin oil90-1100,0710,1lanolin oil
Laurel Berry Oil198-2060,1440,202Laurus nobilis (laurel) oil
Lecithin Liquid180-2000.1350,19Lecithin
Flaxseed oil186-1960,1360,191Linum Usitatissimum (Linseed) Seed Oil
Linseed oil, organic186-1960,1360,191Linum Usitatissimum (flax) Seed Oil
Macadamia butter175-2000,1340,188Macadamia ternifolia seed oil (and) hydrogenated vegetable oil
Macadamia nut oil190-2000,1390,195macadamia (Macadamia) nut oil
Macadamia nut oil, organic190-2000,1390,195Macadamia ternifolia (Macadamia) seed oil
Corn Oil1900,1350,19 
Mango Oil (Oleine)180-1950,1340,188Mangifera indica (mango) seed oil
Mango butter183-1980,1360,191Mangifera indica (mango) seed butter
Mango Butter, Refined185-1950.1350,19Mangifera indica (mango) seed butter
Manketti Oil190-2050.1410.198Schinziophyton rautanenii (Manketti) Oil
Maracuja oil passion fruit, Virgin150-2100.1280,18Edulis (passion fruit) seed oil
Marula Oil193 – 2000.140.197Sclerocarya Birrea (Marula) Pit oil
Marula Oil, Virgin188 – 1990.1380.194Sclerocarya Birrea (Marula) Pit oil
Meadowfoam Oil1690.120.169Limnanthes alba (Meadowfoam ) Seed oil
Meadowfoam Seed Oil160 – 1750.120.168Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil
Monoi de Tahiti Oil240 – 2700.1820.255Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil (and) Gardenia Tahitensis (Tiare) Flower Extract (and) Tocopherol (and) Helianthus Annus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
Moringa Oil185-2050,1390,195Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil
Mustard oil1720.1230.172 
Murumuru Butter245-2600,180,253Astrocaryum Murumuru Seed Butter
Neem organic oil190-1990,1390,195Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Kernel Oil
Neem Oil1970,140,197Azadirachta indica (neem) Oil
Neem oil, organic190-1990,1390,195Azadirachta indica (neem) Kernel Oil
Niger seed oil1890,1350,189 
Nilotica Shea Butter, Organic185-1950,1350,19Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Seed Butter
Olive Oil184 – 1960,1350,19Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil
Olive oil butter175-2000,1340,188Olea europea (Olive) Seed Oil (en) hydrogenated vegetable Oil
Olive Oil Pomace1900,1350,19Olea europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil
Olive oil, Extra Virgin, Organic184 – 1960,1350,19Olea europaea (Olive)
palm oil190-2050.1410.198Elaeis guineensis (Palm) oil
Brazil nut oil, organic186 – 1960,1360,191Bertholletia Excelsa (Brazil)
Passion Fruit Seed Oil, Organic167-2000.1310.184Edulis (passion fruit) seed oil
Pecan Oil186-1940.1350,19Algooquian pacan (pecan) nut oil
Pequi oil, refined190-2150,1450,203Caryocar braziliensis (Pequi) fruit oil
Perilla oil185-2000.1380.193Perilla ocymoides (Perilla) seed oil
Perilla Seed Oil, Organic185 – 2000.1380.193Perilla frutescens (Perilla) seed oil
Peach Kernel Oil185 – 1950. 1350.19Prunus Persica (Peach) Pit Oil
Peanut Oil1900.1350.19 
Pistachio butter175-2000,1340,188Pistacia Vera seed oil (en) Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Pumpkin Seed Oil, Organic, Virgin188-1980,1380,193Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Seed Oil
Poppy Seed Oil1630,1160,163Papaver Somniferum (Poppy) Seed Oil
Prickly Seed Oil, Organic180-1900,1320,185Opuntia Ficus Indica (Prickly Pear) Seed Oil
Pumpkin Seed Oil, Refined188-1980,1380,193Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Seed Oil
Red Raspberry Seed Oil1880,1340,188Rubus Idaeus (Red Raspberry) Seed Oil
Red Raspberry Seed Oil, Organic1880,1340,188Rubus Idaeus (Red Raspberry) Seed Oil
Rice Bran Oil185-1950,1350,19Oryza sativa (rice) Bran Oil
Rice Bran Oil , CP180 – 1900,1320,185Oryza sativa (rice)
Castor oil, Jamaican Black177 – 1850,1290,181Ricinus Communis (Ricinus) Seed Oil
Castor oil, Black, Light176 – 1860,1290,181Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil
Rice bran oil, organic180 – 1900,1320,185Oryza sativa (rice)
Rose Hip Seed Oil, Refined Organic 175-1950,1320,185Rosa Canina (Rose Hip) Seed Oil
Rosehip oil185-1930,1350,189Rosa Canina / Hedgehog (rosehip) seed oil
Rose hips seed oil, organic185-1930,1350,189Rosa Canina / Hedgehog (rosehip) seed oil
Rosehip seed oil , Virgin175 – 1950,1320,185Rosa moschata ()seed oil
Beef fat1960.140.196 
Sacha Inchi oil, organic180-2100,1390,195Plukenetia Volubilis (Sacha Inchi)
Safflower oil, Organic, High oleic acid, Refined186 – 1980,1370,192Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower)
Sesame oil188 – 1950,1370,192Sesamum indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil
Sesame oil, organic188-1980.1380.193Sesamum indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil
Shea Oil170 – 1950,130,183Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) Extract and Citric Acid (0.001% added for stability)
Shea butter170-1900.1280,18Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) Fruit
Shea butter, Organic Ground and refined170-1900.1280,18Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Fruit Butter
Soybean oil180-2000.1350,19Glycine soy (soybean)
Soybean oil,organic189-1950.1370.192Glycine soybean (soybean) Oil
Stearic Acid, Palm-Based208-2130,150,211Stearic acid
Tamanu Foraha Oil185-2050,1390,195Calophyllum Tacamahaca (Tamanu) seed oil
Evening primrose oil organic 180 – 1950,1340,188Oenothera(Evening primrose) oil
Tomato Seed Oil180-2000.1350,19Solanum Lycopersicum (tomato) Seed Oil
Ungurahui oil, Unrefined188-1980,1380,193Oenocarpus Bataua (Ungurahui) Oil
Walnut Oil189-1970,1380,193Juglans Regia (Walnut) Seed Oil
Watermelon Seed Oil188-1950,1370,192watermelon (watermelon) Seed Oil
Wheatgerm Oil180-1950,1340,188Triticum Vulgare (wheat) Germ Oil
Carrot Oil1900,1350,19Glycine Soy (Soy) Oil (and) wild carrot sativa (Root) Root Extract (and) tocopherol
Yangu Cape Chestnut Oil185-2000,1380,193Calodendrum capense (Cape chestnut) Oil
Seed oil Karanja oil, organic185 – 1950,1350,19Pongamia Glabra (Karanja) seed oil
Sweet almond oil, Refined184-1960,1350,19Prunus dulcis ( sweet almond oil) Kernel Oil
sweet almond oil, Winterized184-1960.1350,19Prunus Dulcis (sweet almond oil) Oil
Sunflower Oil, Refined Organic188-1940,1360,191Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
Sunflower oil, high oleic acid1910,1360,191Helianthus annuus (sunflower) oil
Black Berry Seed Oil185-1950,1350,19Ribes Nigrum (Blackcurrant) Seed Oil
Black Cumin Seed Oil185-2050,1390,195Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Oil
Black Cumin Seed Oil, Organic185-2050,1390,195Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Oil
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